The ELO system keeps the amounts of points balanced, so if you gain a point, your opponent will lose one. Thus, if you lost 22 points from winning a game, your opponent would have gained those 22 points! That would be very, very incorrect! So, basically you should never lose points when winning.
However, if the game ends in a tie, the stronger player will often lose points while the weaker player will win some. This could cost 22 points indeed if the strength difference is big.
The formula that determines the amount of points is based on the rating difference between both players, plus a rating disparity that determines how fast you gain or lose points. This will result in a value between 0 and 1 which is multiplied by an 'importance' factor. (I guess 24 or 32 for Stratego.) You will never win or lose more points than this factor.
The result is that the system stays well-balanced. Losing from a much stronger player isn't that bad and winning from them would gain a lot. Thus, the system needs to match players of similar strengths, otherwise the stronger players don't have much to gain from winning.